Appendix I

Key to Exercises (Units 1-8)

Unit 1

Part I Pre-Reading Task

Script for the recording:

Ways of learning is the topic of this unit. It is also the topic of the song you are about to listen to, called Teach Your Children sung by Crosby, Stills and Nash.

Teach Your Children

Crosby, Stills and Nash

You, who are on the road,

Must nave a code that you can live by.

And so, become yourselr,

Because the past is just a goodbye.

Teach your cbildren well,

Their lather's hell did slowly go by.

And reed them on your dreams,

The one they picks, the one you'll mow by.

Don't you ever ash them why, ir they told you, you will cry, So just look at them and sigh and know they love you.

Appendix I - 93 -

And you, oi tender years,

Can't know the rears that your elders grew by.

Ana so please help them with your youtb,

They seek the truth before tbey can die.

Teacb your parents well,

Tbeir children's bell will slowly go by.

And reed them on your dreams,

Tbe one tbey picks, tbe one you'll know by.

Don t you ever ask them why, ir tbey told you, you will cry, So just look at them and sigh and know tbey love you.

The first part of die song is about how parents can inspire their children through sharing with them their dreams, their hopes for a better life. It starts with advice on how you need a set of rules, "a code diat you can live by," to guide you on the road of life. Only then will you be able to fully realise all that is within you and "become yourself." Therefore, parents need to teach their children well.

And children — "you of tender years" — also have something to teach their parents, for learning is not a one-way street. Children should share their own dreams with their parents so that young and old can get to understand each otiier better.

That said, one should not go too far. For some things are perhaps better left unsaid between parents and children. "Don't you ever ask them why, if they told you, you will cry." At such mo-ments all that there is left to do is to look at one another and sigh, happy in each otiier's love.

Part II Text A Text Organization

1. 1) The text begins with an anecdote/incident.

His thoughts are mainly about different approaches to learning in China and the West.

The end winds up the text with a suggestion in die form of a question.

Points for Comparison/Contrast Chinese Americans

1) ways to learn to accomplish a task  show a child how to do something, or teach by holding his hand teach children that they should rely on themselves for solutions to problems

94 - Appendix I

2) attitudes to creativity and skills give greater priority to de-veloping skills at an early age, believing creativity can be promoted over time put more emphasis on fos-tering creativity in young children, thinking skills can be picked up later


1) insert 2) on occasion

3) investigate 4) In retrospect

5) initial 6) phenomena

7) attached 8) make up for

9) is awaiting 10) exception

11) not... in the least 12) promote

13) working on 14) in due course

15) emerged

1) There is a striking contrast between the standard of living in the north of the country and

the south.

Natural fiber is said to be superior to synthetic fiber.

The city's importance as a financial center has evolved slowly.

His nationality is not relevant to whether he is a good lawyer.

The poems by a little-known sixteenth-century Italian poet have found their way into some English magazines.

3. 1) Chinese isn't a subject that can be picked up in a month. You can't accomplish your goal of mastering the language unless you work at it for years. Well, it sounds as if I'm exag-gerating the difficulties, but the fact is I'm only telling the truth.

The principal is somewhat disappointed with the performance of the children. From what she has gathered, some of the teaching staff have neglected their pupils. She has just announced that strict work regulations have been made and that they apply to both Chinese and overseas teachers.

The teacher-directed and the child-directed approaches to teaching art represent two ex-tremes of opinion. Too many teacher-directed activities cannot be expected to effectively assisLchildren in learning because of the rigid structure. On the other hand, too many child-directed activities may see a curriculum that is totally unstructured and out of con-trol. There are valid reasons to believe a teacher-guided approach would be a superior way

Appendix I - 95 -

to guide children's development. This approach combines some form of structure with the child leading the direction.

II. Confusable Words


1) continual 3) continual 2

1) principal 3) principle 5) principal

2) continuous 4) continuous

2) principal

4) principles

III. Usage

1. themselves

3. herself/by herself/on her own

5. ourselves

2. himself/herself

4. itself

6. yourself/by yourself/on your own


1. 1) Simon's ill — so much so that he can't get out of bed.

She herself believed in freedom, so much so that she would rather die than live without it.

Piles of work have kept us busy — so much so that we can't manage to take a holiday this year.

Many contestants later failed drug tests, so much so that the race had to be rerun.

2. 1) Assuming (that) this painting really is a Picasso

Assuming (that) the proposal is accepted

assuming, of course, that she's prepared to listen

Even assuming (that) smokers do see the health warnings

Comprehensive Exercises

I. Cloze


1. contrast 2. exaggerating

3. priority 4. on the other hand

5. promoting 6. pick up

7. assist 8. accomplish

9. on occasion 10. neglecting

- 96 - Appendix I

11. worthwhile 12. superior


1. to 2. affect/influence

3. others 4. each/them

5. without 6. controlled

7. about 8. value

9. They 10. little

11. right 12. but

13. in 14. what

15. worth 16. and

II. Translation

I consider it worthwhile trying to summarize our experience in learning English. Here I would like to make three relevant points.

First, wide reading should be taken as a priority in the learning process, because it is through reading that we get the most language input. Next, learning by heart as many well-written essays as possible is also very important. On the one hand, rote learning/learning by rote is indeed of little help, but on the other hand, memorization/learning by heart with a good understanding will cer-tainly be of benefit/do good to us. With an enormous store of excellent essays in our heads, we will find it much easier to express ourselves in English. Finally, it is critical that we should put what we have learned into practice. By doing more reading, writing, listening and speaking, we will be able to accomplish the task of perfecting our English.

Part III TextB

Comprehension Check

1. c 2. c

3. d 4. a

5. c 6. b


(#ja Appendix III)

Appendix I - 97 -

Language Practice

1. adopt

3. plus

5. furthermore

7. annual

9. pace

11. on demand

13. perspective 15. fell apart

17. access

19. deposit

2. account

4. ended up

6. fund

8. keeping track of

10. intends

12. devise

14. undoubtedly

16. protest

18. resources

20. from your point of view

Part IV Theme-Related Language Learning Tasks

Model paper

How I Learn at College

I went to school in a small town near Chengdu and now I am studying law at Fudan University in Shanghai. Passing from one to the other you have to get used to many new things, not the least being the different way of learning.

At school I found my timetable full throughout the day. One lesson came close on the heels of

another with little time to call one's own. At university, in contrast, only a few hours of each day are

taken up with classes or lectures. In the time made available you are expected to learn on your own.

When and where is up to you. At the same time what you are meant to learn shifts from memorizing

masses of facts to developing an ability to understand theories and present arguments. There are, of

course, still facts to be learned. One should not exaggerate the differences. Nevertheless, learning at

university certainly teaches me greater self-reliance and to think for myself. (169 words)












我很快意识到,这件小事与我们在中国要做的工作直接相关:考察儿童早期教育 (尤其是艺术教育)的方式,揭示中国人对创造性活动的态度。因此,不久我就在与中国教育工作者讨论时谈起了钥匙槽口一事。


我的中国同行,除了少数几个人外,对此事的态度与金陵饭店工作人员一样。”既然大人知道怎么把钥匙塞进槽口——这是处理槽口一事的最终目的, 既然孩子还很年幼,还没有灵巧到可以独自完成要做的动作,让他自己瞎折腾会有什么好处呢?他很有可能会灰心丧气发脾气——这当然不是所希望的结果。为什么不教他怎么做呢?他会高兴,他还能早些学会做这件事,进而去学做更复杂的事,如开门,或索要钥匙——这两件事到时候同样可以 (也应该)示范给他看。















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